CONTENTS Features

The ‘Triangular Trade’ routes between Europe, Africa and North America, which developed from the 17th century. This issue, we explore how understanding of trade winds drove European expansion

THE BIG QUESTION

14 Has China always been the greatest superpower? J

Experts discuss how war, diplomacy and trade won (and lost) power for the nation

PERSPECTIVES

20 The First Opium War J

BY STEPHEN PLATT The roots and aftermath of the 1838 conflict that led to imperial China’s downfall 28 Winds of change J

BY LEWIS DARTNELL How the discovery of trade winds sparked an era of European empire-building

46 Disability a er the First World War BY MARTINA SALVANTE Eight million people were disabled during the 1914–18 conflict. What happened next for those injured veterans? 56 Historic cities through travellers’ eyes J

BY PETER FURTADO Embark on a tour through the past of some of history’s mightiest capitals, from Athens and Havana to Samarkand and Timbuktu 64 Flight across the Pyrenees J

BY MATT CARR Trace the perilous mountain crossings undertaken by Jewish people evading capture by the Nazis during the Second World War

China vs the west: special features

J On the cover

COVER ILLUSTRATION BY DAVIDE BONAZZI

A L A M Y

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