AUTOBIOGRAPHY of G. K. CHESTERTON —continued.

THE TABLET A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER AND REVIEW

VOL. 168 No. 5027

ESTABLISHED 1840 REGISTERED AS A NEWSPAPER

LONDON SEPTEMBER 12th, 1936

SIXPENCE

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK

.329

CABALLERO AS PREMIER ; THE PORTUGUESE DILEMMA ; TROOPS FOR PALESTINE ; SYRIA LEADING ARTICLES 332

THE STRENGTH OF THE LEAGUE ; THE BIG BAD WOLF ; BLACK BOOKS VOLTAIRE ON PROVIDENCE . 334

By ALFRED NOYES RELIGION IN THE AGE OF REVOLUTION,

III ................................................................. 336 By CHRISTOPHER DAWSON CHRISTIANITY IN JERSEY . 338

By MICHAEL TRAPPES-LOMAX DISMISSED—A POEM .............................. 339

By D.W.

ROME LETTER ..........................................340 THE CHURCH ABROAD .............................. 342

FRANCE ; BELGIUM ; LUXEMBOURG ; SPAIN AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY, II . 345

By G. K. CHESTERTON BOOKS OF THE WEEK .............................. 349

SPAIN ; RELIGION AND SEX ; THE AMERICAN IDEAL ; IRELAND, Etc. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR .354 CHESS AND CROSSWORD . 358 THE CALENDAR .......................................... 360

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK Caballero as Premier

The announcement that Largo Caballero, of whose earlier history we wrote last week, has become head of the Madrid Government is the abandonment of what had long been a pretence, that the constitutional Republicans counted for anything in the coalition of Left forces in Spain. Caballero is a Socialist, but that does not mean he is anything like Sidney and Beatrice Webb. He and his party have little or nothing to distinguish them from Communists. When the Right had a majority in the Cortes two years ago, Caballero abandoned constitutional methods in favour of violent revolution. He then declared that all that had previously separated him from the Communists had been questions of method. Since 1934 nothing has separated him from them except the existence of rival organisations. The Trade Union Congress seems to see no particular inconsistency in sending fraternal greetings to him at the same time as it refuses the Communist appeal for a common front and makes plain the vast gulf which separates its political ideals from those of Moscow.

One of Caballero’s first acts has been to throw cold water on the international efforts that were being made to bring the combatants together to devise ways of humanising the peculiarly ferocious struggle. But his assumption of power does offer some encouragement that things will now be better in Madrid. He is a more active and resolute man, with more power than his predecessors, and he can tackle the local Committees, mainly of Anarchists, with more chance of making himself obeyed.

In San Sebastian the division has been very sharp between the Anarchists who want to fight to the last and burn the town as they burnt Irun, and the Basques and other local elements who want to surrender and save it from destruction. The idea of anarchists is so unfamiliar in England, where they are thought of as individual bomb throwers, that the extent to which Anarchism is a recognised political doctrine in Spain is commonly underrated. Clearing the Air

The insurgents now hold half of Spain. In the south their hold is not secure, but in the north-east life is settling down under military government. A programme has been issued foreshadowing a state on Italian and Portuguese lines, with full toleration for Catholicism. The programme is further evidence, if any is still wanted, that neither the hierarchy nor the Catholic parties were originators or instigators of the rising. If there had been any prospect of the Church being permitted to survive and flourish under the Left, Spanish Catholics would only have had to consider, as patriotic Spaniards, which side would be best for Spain. In fact the issue has been increasingly simplified for them ever since the early days of the Republic. The strength of the Left lies in the hands of men imbued with a doctrine of mortal hatred to the claims of revealed religion. They hate the Church when it is allied with the order they mean to abolish, but it is a capital error to suppose that that alliance is the real cause of their hostility. They hate the Church quite as much and rather more where it is popular, democratic, and strongly entrenched in popular affections. The Portuguese Dilemma

The attempted mutiny of two ships of the Portuguese Navy was a small affair quickly suppressed, but it was a reminder of the very special position of Portugal, and an explanation of the long hesitations which are marking Portugal’s attitude to the non-intervention agreement. If Portugal were situated in the east of the Peninsula with a frontier joining the Spanish Government’s strongholds, strict non-intervention would be the obvious course. As things are, Portugal is