July 4. J93(i

THE TABLET

A Weekly Newspaper and Review

V ol. 168. N o . 5017 .

L ondon, J uly 4, 1936 R eg is tered a t the General P ost Off ic e a s a New s p a p e r .

S ixpence

PRINCIPAL

W EEK BY W EEK

Page

The League, Closed or Open? T rade Unions and Italy, the Future of the B .B .C .................. 1 FALSE NOTIONS ON POPULATION ............. 4 CHURCH AND STATE ............................................ 5

(By Ronald Knox)

ROME AND THE EMPIRE .................................. 6

(By Bernard W all)

ST. CUTHBERT’S STOLE .................................. 8 PARIS LETTER ...................................................... 8 ROME LETTER ...................................................... 9

CONTENTS

TH E CHURCH IN THE WORLD

St. Knud's A nniversary, Orthodox Congress at A thens, St. Bernard Hospice in T ibet .. . 10 LETTERS TO TH E EDITOR

T erritorial Chaplains, Judaism, Maryland, Civil Liberties ...................................................... 12 TH E NEW BOOKS

Page

Belloc on Property, Two Books on Sex, a Hudson A nthology ............................................ 14 THE A PO S TO LA T E OF THE COUNTRYSIDE 22 THE P A T R IA R CH OF RUMANIA ........................ 22 CONVERTS’ A ID SOCIETY .................................. 25 PANEGYRIC ON G. K. CPIESTERTON ............. 26 THE CALENDAR ...................... 28

WEEK BY WEEK

A CLOSED OR OPEN L E AGUE?

r f ' HE events o f the past seven days have not

"*■ lessened the serious difficulties which beset the critical relations between the great Powers. The reform o f the League has been shelved until September, but no one expects that the position will be easier by then. The events at Geneva make it increasingly improbable that either Italy or Germany will return to active membership o f the Geneva system. The great advantage o f the League o f Nations has always been the provision it has made fo r continuous close consultation, under circumstances o f greater publicity than prevailed in the days when ambassadorial dispatches were almost the sole means by which international questions were treated. But for the League system to produce the useful results which it can it is necessary fo r all the major European Powers to take part. One absentee means constant reservations on the part o f the participating nations, and the existence o f a dual system. I f Italy and Germany are excluded the real centre o f interest must move back to the Chancelleries, where nations deal with one another whatever they think o f each other’s conduct.

The view is still violently proclaimed in this country that Italy must be ejected as not fit to associate with the League Powers. The confutation o f that view came, ironically enough, in the dignified speech o f the ex-Emperor, Haile Selassie, when he spoke at Geneva o f the double dealing o f many League members, referring particularly to the French. Faith was not kept with his Government, and those who are turning uneasily from the spectacle o f the injury their assurances have in fact proved to the defeated, do not help matters by seek

N ew S e r ie s . Vol. CXXXVI. No. 4416.

ing to make up fo r the practical aid which they were quite unwilling, at a test, to render, by assurances that they really disapprove o f the victor very much. Mr. Eden has lately shown much good sense in the face o f much temptation, but his process o f gradual retreat from the false position o f the British Government has led him to refuse recognition to the accomplished facts in Abyssinia. Already his motion that the assembly should not recognise the Italian conquest has been translated by the overeager Alews Chronicle into a pledge, and it will be brought up against him as soon as the facts compel recognition, because recognition cannot really be withheld. Some Government has to be recognised as existing in Abyssinia, and the British Government is, to-day, in the obviously temporary predicament that it has recognised that the old Abyssinian Government has ended but not that it has been replaced by anything else.

THE TRADE UNIONS AND IT A L Y A spectator at the great rallies in Hyde Park last Sunday might well recall Lord Macaulay’ s dictum : “ There is nothing quite so ridiculous as the British people having one o f its periodical fits o f morality.” The wording o f the Trades Unions resolutions, looking back to Garibaldi, whom Trade Unionists had welcomed, and contrasting that welcome with the detestation felt for Mussolini, “ the destroyer o f Italian and Abyssinian liberty,” illustrated the intermingling motives o f the demonstration. T o Trade Unionists, Mussolini has for long been among the most evil o f mankind because he has suppressed Trade Unions, and behind much o f the democratic language used against both Germany and Italy, as sometimes against Russia, there is a purely industrial background.

The Trade Unions are, in general, responsible bodies with traditions o f effective action to which