THE TABLET

A WEEKLY NEWSPAPER AND REVIEW

ESTABLISHED 1840

VOL. 168 No. 5020

REGISTERED A S A NEW SPAPER

LONDON JULY 25th 1936

SIXPENCE

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK : PRINCIPAL CONTENTS ROME LETTER

GERMANY

TH E C IV IL WAR IN SPA IN ; TH E LOCARNO POW ERS ; TH E PALESTINE COMM IS S IO N ; SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN 101 THE CHURCH IN THE WORLD

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GERMANY, FRANCE, CANADA, U .S .A ., JAPAN

112

PAX ROMANA............................................... 104 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR HATS ROUND THE WORLD 105 TH E A POSTOLATE O F TH E COUNTRYSIDE, TH E MEANS TEST , TH E P O P E AND TH E NATIONS, SPIR IT UAL 113 FAVOURS A CENTURY OF GERMAN CATHOLICISM 106 BOOKS : GEORGIAN DUBLIN, JE F FER SON , CURRENCY 116 THE RELIGION OF THE JEWS IN REVOLUTION, SC IEN CE IN RUSSIA

PALESTINE ........................................... 107 THE APOSTOLATE OF THE COUNTRYPRINTING THE T A B L E T ......................... 109 SIDE .......................................................... 125 LONDON LETTER .................................... 109 A CONGRESS FOR REUNION 126 PARIS LETTER .................................... 110 THE CALENDAR ................................... 127

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK Civil War in Spain

Civil War is once more raging in Spain ; this time more wide-spread than ever before. Though recent events made an ultimate clash between the conflicting forces of the extreme Right and the extreme Left inevitable, nobody could have suspected a few months ago that the clash would come so soon. Ever since the general elections in February, the political situation was becoming more and more intolerable. It was anticipated from the beginning that the Government would find itself impotent to stem the revolutionary ardour of its extremist followers, but it was not foreseen that its helplessness would become apparent so rapidly.

Faced with a social and economic unrest carefully organised and fostered by parties within the Popular Front, powerless to bring them to heel, and terrified of antagonizing them, the Government found itself forced to persecute imaginary Fascists, to whom all the disorder was attributed, in a vain attempt to appease its followers. Constitutional guarantees were suspended, strict press censorship was never relaxed, thousands of arrests were made, but nothing was done to prevent or put a stop to the numberless strikes that have lasted often for months on end, or to the arbitrary confiscation of property, seizure of houses, etc., that have been a feature of Socialist rule in the municipalities. Such action on the one hand, and inaction on the other, served to embolden the Communists and exasperate the Fascists.

The official Fascist Party in Spain was, until a few months ago, ;ite insignificant, but it is one of the achievements c! the Popular Front to have swelled its ranks enormously, though in the present chaos it is impossible to ak of a “ Fascist Party” in the strict sense of the . By fascists one can only loosely denote all those who wish to restore order and authority, and who have turned to violence in order to achieve this. And it has undoubtedly been the reluctance of the Government to enforce law and order that has made large sections of the Right adopt the principle that violence should be met by violence. Once this principle was adopted one can speak, for the sake of convenience, of a Fascist Party as having come into existence. It was then that civil war became inevitable: inevitable, because of the failure of Spaniards to be able to compromise on fundamentals, a compromise that The Times, in a leading article on Spain, has declared to be necessary for democratic government to function at all. If this statement is true then, the average Spaniard would say, democratic government is immoral, and the only alternative is a dictatorship—either of the Left or of the Right. And that, in short, is the issue that has once more plunged the unhappy country into bloodshed. A Planned Rising

That the rising had been planned for some time is obvious, but it is also obvious that it has broken out sooner than was intended. It has been precipitated by the brutal murder of Calvo Sotelo, the leader of the National Block, or union of the two Monarchist parties— Alfonsists and Traditionalists. He, we may surmise, was to have been Prime Minister, if the uprising proved successful. What is yet by no means certain, is which of the political parties, if any, are implicated in the revolt. It is scarcely to be believed that Señor Gil Robles has had any hand in it, as the whole of his policy has been based on a refusal to overstep the bounds of legality. It is primarily a military movement, but as not all the army has followed the officers, and as the air force and navy appear to support the Government, it is not