July 18, 1936

THE TABLET

A Weekly Newspaper and Review

V o l . 1 68. N o . 5 0 1 9 .

L o n d o n , J u l y 18, 1936 R eg is tered a t the General P o st Of f i c e as a New s pape r .

S ix p en c e

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS

TH E W ORLD W E EK B Y W EEK

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T he A ustro-German A greement, B ritish Foreign Policy, Food Supplies in W ar, T he T rade Position, T he Rooseveltian Philosophy 69 TH E POPE AND TH E N A T I O N S ........................ 72 THE R ISE OF TH E TORTO IS E ........................ 73 AM ER IC AN CATHOLICS IN TH E ELECTION

Y E A R ........................................................................... 73 TH E CATHOLIC RH IN ELAND ........................ 75 CATHOLICISM IN IN D IA .................................. 76 LONDON L E T T E R ...................................................... 78 PARIS L E T T E R ................................................................ 78 ROME L E T T E R ................................................................. 79

TH E CHURCH IN THE WORLD

Manchukuo, Japan, China, Holland ............. 80 LETTERS TO TH E ED ITO R

Love, Courtship and Marriage; B iology by F il m s ; T he Means T est ......................... 82 BOOKS :—

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A ldous H uxley (by Evelyn W augh), S ir W . C itrine in Russia, John Gibbons in Ireland, Christianity and Race, etc. etc., Catholic Periodicals for July ............................................ 84 CHESS, CROSSW ORD ............................................ 89 O B IT U A R Y :—

S ister A ugustine, Peter Bennett, T. P. Ellis, Cardinal B inet ...................................................... 91 TH E A PO S TO L A T E OF TH E COUNTRYSIDE 94

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK A TURN FOR THE BETTER IN AUSTRIA T T is very important that the agreement between

Herr Hitler and Dr. Schuschnigg, the Austrian Chancellor, was made with the knowledge and approval o f the British Government. W e are still suffering from division in the Cabinet about the policy that ought to be pursued in Europe. While there are two schools o f thought which score their successes against each other, it is impossible for foreign nations to foresee at all clearly what we are likely to do. Signor Mussolini was the victim o f this dualism last year. A t the time o f the Stresa Front in March, 1935, he formed the impression, from studying Sir John Simon, that Great Britain, while participating in the Stresa Front, felt) no particular concern what policy the Italians might pursue fo r the protection and extension o f their A frica n colonies. To-day it is the turn o f the French and the Belgians, who had to content themselves in March with foregoing strong united action against the Germans fo r remilitarising the' Rhineland. They received in return the concession from Britain that while negotiations must be pursued with Germany, a certain sharpness o f tone should give edge to the British questionnaire. Last year the French had evidence o f this dualism in British policy when the naval agreement was successfully negotiated between Britain and Germany. The Austrian settlement is considered a more serious portent o f the British drift away from maintaining even the appearance o f alliance.

o f the League o f Nations Covenant can be employed to the full. The French argument is that we ought now to pay our debt fo r all the support we received from France last summer when we led the nations at Geneva against the Italians. The French feel that an equal firmness about the German breach o f Locarno is the least we owe, and is something which prudence as well as morality should dictate. Against this there is an older school o f thought in the British Cabinet to which Mr. Baldwin himself inclines, which deplores the fatalism o f the Foreign Office view that only by a united front against Germany can peace in Europe be maintained. The Germans appreciate in Lord Halifax a Minister able to understand how difficult the Germans are finding it to deal with the French. Great Britain is now only interested in a Locarno Conference with both Germany and Italy taking part. The French want a preliminary meeting with Britain to maintain a punitive front. Both the Italians and Germans to-day would welcome the replacement o f Mr. Eden by a Minister more sympathetic to them. That replacement is not likely to occur. The office o f Foreign Secretary is one which has been traditionally held fo r long periods by men o f great experience. Mr. Eden was a momentary and political choice, who is embarrassed by having as colleagues three previous holders o f his office, MacDonald, Simon and Hoare, but while he carries out the Cabinet’s policy there is no case for contriving a further change. It is obvious that no Minister can do very much in a few months. Negotiations take a long time, and the confidence which negotiations presuppose takes longer still.

The two schools o f thought in the Cabinet both contend fo r the favour o f the Prime Minister. Last December was the hour o f triumph fo r the younger Ministers, Mr. Eden and Mr. Duff Cooper in particular, who accept the necessity fo r a strong and avowedly anti-German front in which the machinery

The Austrian agreement is a notable departure from the collective principle. It follow s on the handing over o f the Danzig question fo r settlement i

N ew Series. Voi. CXXXVI. No. 4418.