May:80, 1986


A Weekly Newspaper and Review

Vol. 167 . No. 5012 .

Lo Registered at NDON, M ay 30, 1936 the General Post Office as a Newspaper.






THE BELGIAN ELECTIONS............ ... 678 IRISH LETTER ...................... ............ 686 THE VATICAN AND THE PRESS ... ... 680 CHURCH IN THE WORLD ... ............ 687 THE PROTESTANTS IN GERMANY



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR ... THE NEW BOOKS...................... ............ 689 ............ 693

WHIT SUNDAY ...................... ............ 702

PSYCHOLOGY ............................... ... 683 THE CALENDAR ...................... ............ 704


THE DUTCH B ISH O PS ' PASTORAL ' T ' HE Pastoral Letter of the Dutch Bishops is short, but it says very much more than many a longer Pastoral. It was read last Sunday in all the churches in Holland, and is as follows :—

“ The Archbishops and Bishops of Holland to the faithful, blessing in the name of the Lord.

“ Dear faithful,-—Two years ago we have warned you in a pastoral letter against the dangerous current of our time, especially in the political field. Notwithstanding our letter being clear enough, some have misused it by distorting explanation. The fact that the dangers to which we drew your attention then have come clearer in the light makes it a duty for us once more to address you.

“ We stay firmly convinced that the Church and our Fatherland in great measure would be harmed, and even that their salutary working would in large part be made impossible if the movement of National Socialism should get the upper hand. Therefore we declare, as pastors of your souls, who feel deeply our responsibility, that those who give support to this party in important measure will not be admitted to the IToly Sacraments. The docility, dear faithful, you have shown so often in difficult circumstances makes us trust that you will listen again to-day to the word of your bishops, and so this, our pastoral letter, is to be read on Sunday, May 24, in all our churches and chapels during the fixed Holy Services in the accustomed manner.

“ Given at LTtrecht, the 6th day of May, 1936.” The National Socialist movement in Holland is not, on paper, very formidable to-day. It must not, however, be underrated. It is forbidden to the Services, but it is strong in the Army and has a hold in the Dutch Colonies, which have suffered heavily and consider themselves both victimized and neglected. Its strength lies in its attacks

N ew S er ie s . Vol. CXXXY. No. 4411.

on the graft and petty corruption which find the shadow of Parliamentary institutions so beneficial to their growth. But the whole Parliamentary system is threatened as the determination of a standard majority of the Chamber to maintain the gold standard involves a succession of apparently never-ending sacrifices from the people. The Chamber has a hundred members, and a third of them are Catholics. In the ranks of the Catholic party there has been an increasing demand for a new policy, for a recognition by the Government that it is no good marking time and holding on in the hope that the old Freetrade world will ever come back. The industrious and commercially minded Dutch live by trade. Amsterdam is the European end of the Dutch East Indies. Rotterdam was always one of the main doorways to and from Germany. The Dutch make the most of their small country—at a pinch they could feed themselves—hut they have little love for talk of self-sufficiency, and they cling to the gold standard not only from a horror of possible inflation but because they still hope to see the rest of the world returning to it. But it means that Dutch money is expensive in terms of other countries, and Holland was never a cheap country. Imports have had to be restricted and exports made artificially cheap. The new policies of protection, like the English agricultural policy, hit the Dutch, and hit them when they have to find revenue for defence in face of the new Germany. They more, perhaps, than any other country hoped to find in the League of Nations a system of cheap security, because they need not only peace for themselves but world peace. The moment there is war in Europe they run the risk of being caught between the sea risks to their treasured Dutch East Indies and the land risks of invasion.

Since the economic breakdown six years ago the Dutch have passed through two moods. At first their attitude was reminiscent of President Hoover. Prosperity, it was hoped, would soon return, let citizens but tighten their belts. The second mood