May 2, 1936.


A Weekly Newspaper and Review

V o l . 16 7 . N o . 5008.

L ondon, M a y 2 , 1936

Registered at the General P ost Office as a Newspaper.

S i x p e n c e



WEEK BY W E E K ....................... ............. 545 THE CHURCH IN THE WORLD ............. 556 LEADING ARTICLES ............. ............. 548 THE NEW B O O K S ....................... ............. 558 M ISCELLANY ....................... ............. 549 ANGLICAN ORDERS ............. ............. 559 IS SPAIN GOING COMMUNIST? ............. 552 LETTERS TO THE EDITOR ... ............. 564 THE EVESHAM PSALTER ... ............. 553 THE ROYAL ACADEMY ............. 570, THE DATE OF CREATION ... ............. 554 THE CALENDAR ....................... ............. 574



' ' h e K ing o f Egypt, who died so suddenly, d e ­

parts from the middle o f an extremely delicate position. His young son will not be eighteen for a year and a half, during which the main lines o f Egypt’s future will perhaps have hardened. A regency is being set up whose personnel is favourable to the British connection. The late King ascended the throne in 1917, when it was plain that Turkey would not again matter in Egypt. He was put on the throne by the British with the title o f Sultan, and although he had spent most o f his life in Italy, where his father Ibrahim had fled on losing his throne, Fuad was considered as no more than the well-paid nominee o f Great Britain. The strong upsurgence o f national feeling in Egypt, as elsewhere, and the decision o f Lord Milner’s commission to recognize Egyptian independence, caused Fuad to blossom out as a King in 1922. But the factors which magnified his position also made it an uneasy one. Throughout the 1920’s he was faced with a A^ery powerful Nationalist Party, whose leader, Zaghlul, was in fact, though not in name, the first man in the country. Fuad, however, had some o f the qualities o f Charles II, though he never achieved a comparable popularity. He did succeed in making himself more and more the real ruler, and he was much surprised to find British influence being used in the interests o f Constitutionalism. The British had no desire to see him grow into an absolute monarch who would be tempted to bolster up his popularity by taking a strongly National line himself. N or did they wish to see the tension between the King and the W a fd go beyond the lengths o f healthy political excitement. In particular, British influence discouraged the building up o f a strong Egyptian army, and the Egyptian army to-day is not strong. It is not mechanized in a part o f the Avorld where mechanization is particularly important, and there have been plenty o f people to wish, in the last few months, that a bolder line had been taken ten years ago in

N ew S eries. Vol. CXXXV. No. 4407.

encouraging the Egyptians i f they were determined, as they plainly were, not to live under British tutelage, to equip themselves so that they cannot be over-run. The concentration o f Italian troops in Libya makes the defence o f Alexandria and o f the Canal a military and land question, not simply a matter for the British fleet.


In such matters as a provision fo r tanks and aeroplanes the earlier British attitude o f discouragement is one which there are few reasons to maintain. The beginning o f our connection with Egypt, in association with the French, was to protect bondholders, and the great Avork which Lord Cromer did fo r the country began in a desire to put it on its feet financially so that it could meet the obligations which had been contracted in its name. To-day, our interest in seeing that the Suez Canal remains open as a highway fo r ships is a very general interest, and one which ought not to be considered primarily a British obligation. Like the Turks, the Egyptians have drawn a number o f morals from recent events, and the cordial response made to Turkey about the refortification o f the Straits is the expression o f the British desire that those countries shall not in fact be encouraged to look to the joint action o f Britain and France for their security. The rapid success o f Marshal Badoglio has taught a further lesson o f the great importance o f equipment which cannot be improvized at short notice. Whatever the fate o f Addis Ababa, the war is not likely to end speedily, and the Italians will be preoccupied with Abyssinia for years to come. The recent speech o f M. Paul Boncour, in which he spoke o f setting Italy free fo r more urgent and important business elsewhere, expressed the general French impatience to see this colonial adventure o f Italy brought to a successful end. However much Signor Mussolini might desire to re-establish the Stresa front, he is in a very different position to last year. Then he had all the men and equipment which he has utilized since in A frica . It is true that in the opinion o f the German