VOL. 170 No. 5087





WHY THE SPANISH ARMY ROSE CATALONIA IN THE CIVIL WAR The Complexities and Importance of Politics in Barcelona explained by Professor E. Allison Peers


Editorial Full Contents List on page 616.

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK M r. Eden and Some Facts on Spain

Mr. Eden’s speech in the House o f Commons on Monday established a number o f important points which are still being glibly denied or calmly ignored. The first is that quite as much warlike material has gone during the summer months ju s t past to Valencia and Barcelona, as has gone to General Franco. Mr. Eden was quite definite on this point. Yet the Labour Opposition went away from the debate to continue their plans for a nation-wide demonstration to insist on the right of the lawful Spanish Government to buy arms for itself. The second major point is that both sides have hundreds o f thousands o f men under arms, and that it is losing all sense o f proportion to concentrate attention all the time on foreign auxiliaries, who are, at the most, only a small proportion of the army on either side. The third thing is the admission that the Nyon Agreement has so far worked out, as it was intended by the Russians and French to do, very adversely to the Spanish Nationalists. The original patrol system arranged for Germans and Italians to watch the east coast of Spain, just as the French and British watched the south-west and north-west coasts. The method that lay behind the attacks on the Leipzig and the Deutschland worked perfectly. The Germans and Italians withdrew from the patrol, leaving the coasts open, and the anti-piracy agreement at Nyon guaranteed the free passage of war material from Russia to go in what quantities it pleased to Barcelona. The Nationalists are much stronger at sea than their enemies, and the moment they are granted belligerent rights, they will be able to interfere with vessels bound for Spanish ports. It is not surprising if Mr. Maisky, in the Non-Intervention Committee, has to do everything he can to prevent any agreement which would result in extending belligerent rights to the Nationalists. Recognition is nevertheless brought nearer every day by the sheer force o f events. The British Government has arranged for the exchange of consular officials, and is now preparing what will amount to recognition, although the ordinary names of Ambassador or Minister may not be used. It is not merely that twothirds o f Spain is now under the Nationalist civil Government at Burgos, but that the country is orderly and a home of industrial and commercial activity with which Great Britain has much business to do. By contrast, in the diminishing area of Spain ruled, as from today, not from Valencia and Barcelona but only from Barcelona, the ravages of the proletarian revolution have been much more extensive than the ravages o f war. It is useless for British companies to hope for profitable connections in places where foreign capital has been sequestrated and where it is quite uncertain who will be in power in a few months’ or a few weeks’ time. So the Nationalist peseta is worth five times as much as the Red peseta.

A further very material point was Mr. Eden’s reminder to the Opposition th a t the South American countries are strong partisans o f General Franco. When men like Mr. Noel Baker talk of the League as the proper authority for the Spanish Civil War, they forget how the membership o f the League was largely in central and South American States. These States are typical modern Democracies. The real power in them is the power o f anonymous capital. The politicians who come and go are only free agents within narrow limits, but the countries are Democracies on the French or American constitutional models, and it is the falsest of simplifications to pretend that the world’s Democracies are all on one side in Spain. Numerically, more o f them