VOL. 170 No. 5078





Personal Studies of Front and Back Benchers CHRISTOPHER HOLLIS ON EUROPE TODAY

A Summary of the Ideological Position


A Psychological Sidelight by T. S. Gregory

THE WORLD WEEK BY WEEK The Spanish Situation

Now that Santander has fallen, Gijon is the only outpost held by the Government forces in the north of Spain. It is hard to see how it can possibly survive for long, though its fall must not be expected within a few days, as the Nationalists have throughout their offensive been careful to avoid the error of more haste, less speed, and not to launch their attacks until every preparation for them has been made. The clearing-up of Gijon is not likely to be at all a pleasant business. There will be the last stand of the Asturian miners, who, as soldiers, proved themselves the fastest runners of all the Government troops at Bilbao, but have also been from the first the most bitter of all the enemies of the Nationalist cause. The Government have so often reported successes for themselves on the Aragon front, whenever they have nothing else to report, that no one is likely to believe that Saragossa is really in danger until it proves to be so.

The general position may be summarized as follows : out of fifty provincial capitals, thirty-five are in Nationalist hands, and only fifteen in Red hands. Of those fifteen only eleven are wholly dominated by them, for the Nationalist Army occupies part of Cuenca, Guadalajara, Jean and Madrid. Spain has a population of 22,000,000 inhabitants, of which 15,000,000 are living in Nationalist Spain, and only 7,000,000 in Red territory. Therefore, over 68 per cent of the total population of Spain is with Franco. Spain has surface of 504,776 square kilometres. Of this Franco governs 64 per cent and the Reds only 36 per cent of the Peninsular territory. Of the islands eighteen are with Nationalist Spain, and with the Government only one, Minorca. Franco also has Ifni, Guinea, Rio de Oro and Spanish Morocco. The Refusal of Belligerent Rights

The legal situation arising from our Government’s refusal of belligerent rights to General Franco is merely

Gilbertian. The recognition of belligerent rights is not a prize to be given to a good boy ; it is the recognition of a fact. If our Government refuses to recognize the fact of the insurrection, then it follows, as in normal times, that the recognized Government—the Valencia Government—-is responsible for the maintenance of order in Spain, and for any damage that British interests may suffer through its failure to maintain order—that is to say, for any damage that British interests may suffer at the hands of Nationalist forces. The Attack on the British Ambassador

The sympathy of every one in this country—and indeed throughout the world—goes out to Sir Hughe KnatchbullHugessen. At the same time it is important to keep clear the exact nature of the grievance of the attack on him. The terms of the British protest have been commendably well phrased. Had the Japanese known that they were attacking an Ambassador, they would of course have been guilty of the most serious possible breach of diplomatic etiquette. There is, however, no suggestion that they knew what it was that they were doing, and, if they did not know who they were attacking, their guilt cannot be greatly increased by the accident that their victim happened to be an Ambassador. The grievance against them is that they attacked indiscriminately cars passing along a road far distant from the scene of operations—on the off-chance apparently that one of them might contain the head of a State with which Japan is even now nominally not at war. Indeed the British complaint is precisely the same as the Japanese excuse, so at least there is no serious dispute about the facts. Konoe and Saionji : Two Generations Compare Notes

It would have been an entertaining experience to have been invisibly present at the interview between Prince Konoe, the Prime Minister, and Prince Saionji, the last of the Elder Statesmen, who is always consulted on