Index and Little Dictionary

Abbasids 76-8 adl: justice, esp. distributive justice in all its manifestations: social, economic, political, environmental, intellectual and spiritual. 57 Afghani, Jalamuddin 145 Akhra: the Hereafter, life after death, when everyone is asked to account for his/her deeds. Refers to another existence after the life of the world. 50 Allah: literally 'The God". 16, 28 Allah, Shah Wali 143 Arabi, ibn 93 architecture 115, 118-19 art 120 astronomy 99-102, 107, 124

Sanna, Hasan al- 147 Baruni, al- 100 Basri, Rabiah al- 93 Battani, al- 100 Bennabi, Malek 163 Black Stone 9 books banned 130 classification of 87 demand for 84 bookshops 81 British, the 131, 144 Bukhari, Imam 33

chansons de geste 137 colonization 131-5, 136, 163 Crusades, the 138-40

Dawood, N.J. 47

East India Company 134 Elements of Astrology, The 1 04 environment 56, 117, 125 equality 51

Farabi, al- 90 Faruqi, Ismail al- 165-6 fasting see Ramadan fatwa: legal opinion, usually given by a qualified jurist and binding only on him and those who follow his "taqlid". 65 Fihrist al-Nadim, al- 81 fiqh: Islamic jurisprudence. 64-5 French, the 132 fundamentalism 157-9

Ghazzali, al- 87, 91 God see Allah hadith: sayings or traditions of the Prophet Muhammad. 31-6, 35-6 hajj: the annual pilgrimage to Makkah. 55 halal: lawful, permitted, good, beneficial and praiseworthy in the broadest sense. Hamdis, ibn 96 haram: unlawful, prohibited, bad, hence blameworthy. 115 Haytham, ibn al- 101 Hayyan, Jabir ibn 103 heaven 16 hijra: Migration of the Prophet Muhammad from Makkah to Madina in June 622; marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is thus referred to as hijra calendar. 18-19 Hilt al-Fudul 8 hima: inviolate zone. 117 holy war see jihad Hudaybia, treaty of 24 hudud: normally refers to the inviolate limits placed by God on man. If they are violated, punishment is handed out according to fixed laws called hudud. 44 Hussain, Saddam 61

ibadah: worship of everything that expresses servitude to God, such as the pursuit of knowledge, living a pious life, helping other people, leading one's community with humility and so on. ijma: consensus of the Muslim community in general and the learned in particular. One of the four bases of Islamic law. More particularly, consensus as political principle. 62, 66, 129 ijtihad: exerting oneself to the utmost degree to reach comprehension and form an opinion. The basic Islamic principle for adjusting to change. 66, 129, 164 lkhwan al Muslimin 147-8 ilm: all varieties of knowledge, revealed as well as acquired. 58, 78, 129 ilm ar-Rijal 32 imam: religious leader; literally an early descendant of the Prophet. 75 Iqbal, Muhammad 146 Iran 72, 73, 155-6 Islam: peace, submission to God, the natural inclination of human beings.

birth of 12 denunciation of 137 four pillars of 53-5 fundamentalism 157 future of 170