language 23, 25

at “degree zero” 158 chaos behind 99–101 metaphysics and 44 power of 150–1 using 151 Levi, Primo 150–1, 158 logic 10 Lyotard, Jean-François 115–18 marginalization 119–20 Marx, Karl 28–31, 141, 143 Marxism 7, 77, 106 masculinity 132 mass movements 112 mathematical sublime 38 meaning 122

dependence on symbolic system 26 metaphysics 32, 42–5, 48–9, 51, 121

by back door 52 end of 125–30 and language 44 overcoming 55 of presence 121–2, 132–3 mind, limits of 118 modernity end of 64 problem with 68 National Socialism 67–8 Nietzsche, Friedrich 3, 5, 13, 40–9, 55–62

on Dionysian energy 88, 160 and Heraclitus 17 on Kant 40, 48–9, 52, 55 on Overman 60–1 on philosophers 130–1 on religion 40–4, 57–8 Sartre response to 99 on science 45–6 nihilism 47, 61, 155 normality 145–6 nothingness 55–6 noumenon 32, 49, 51 Oedipus complex 136, 161–5 Other 36, 55, 128 patriarchy 132–3, 138 “perhaps” 127, 130 pessimism 47–8 “peut-être” 127, 130 phallo-logocentrism 132 political, private and 142

politics 120 post-structuralism 107 postmodernism 107, 116 power desire for 57 of language 150–1 new relations of 143–7 presence 121–2, 132–3 private, and political 142 progress, storm of 87 psychoanalysis 7, 14, 93–4, 140, 161 psychosis 138, 140 Rancière, Jacques 119–20 rationalism 70 reality 93–5 religion 42–4 repression 12–14, 18, 60, 70, 81, 149 rules 23–4

fundamental 26 Sartre, Jean-Paul 98–106 Saussure, Ferdinand de 122, 124 schizoanalysis 160 science 45–6, 76 self 18, 22–3 sensation 17, 160, 163, 166, 168 Spirit 66 subject, as producer 141 subject “I” 18, 161 sublime 37–9, 51–2, 54, 117–18 symbolic order 23–8, 93 synthesis 34–6, 52, 54–6, 59, 66 systems of communication 23 technology 62–3 teleology 65 time 159 transcendentalism 170 truths, universal 20 uncertainty 70 unconscious 14, 27, 160–1 understanding, limits of 71 universality 157 violence, and the law 81, 149 will to power 56–7, 59 Wittgenstein, Ludwig 10–11 Zarathustra 60–1 Žižek, Slavoj 7, 93, 109, 111