contents april 2016 • issue 441 Editor Nancy Sladek Deputy Editor Tom Fleming Editor-at-Large Jeremy Lewis Assistant Editors Frank Brinkley • David Gelber Contributing Editors Jonathan Beckman Michael Burleigh • Sara Wheeler • Philip Womack Editorial Assistant Francesca Carington Advertising Manager Terry Finnegan Classified Advertising David Sturge Marketing Manager Katherine Bogden Bayard Founding Father Auberon Waugh Founding Editor Dr Anne Smith Cover Illustration Chris Riddell

The Literary Review, incorporating Quarto, is published monthly from: 44 Lexington Street, London W1F 0LW • Tel: 020 7437 9392 Fax: 020 7734 1844 • ISSN 0144 4360 © All subscription enquiries and changes of address to: Literary Review Subscriptions, The Maltings, West Street, Bourne, Lincolnshire PE10 9PH • Tel: +44 (0) 1778 395 165 All advertising enquiries to: Terry Finnegan, Literary Review, 44 Lexington Street, London W1F 0LW • Tel: 020 7437 9392 Printed in the United Kingdom by: Henry Ling Ltd, at the Dorset Press, Dorchester DT1 1HD • Tel: 01305 251 066 Distributed to newsagents worldwide by: COMAG Specialist, Tavistock Works, Tavistock Rd, West Drayton, Middlesex, UB7 7QX • Tel: 01895 433 800 Distributed to bookshops by: Central Books, 99 Wallis Road, London E9 5LN • Tel: 020 8986 4854 Subscriptions: Editorial: • @lit_review Designed by Cog Design Literary Review is set in Adobe Caslon and Janet. The latter is a digitisation of an engraved typeface designed by the artist and typographer Reynolds Stone, and named after his wife.

Literary Review | april 2016 4

pulpit 1 Andrew Lownie history 8 C P W Gammell

The Iran–Iraq War Pierre Razoux 9 Robert Irwin

This Orient Isle: Elizabethan England & the Islamic World Jerry Brotton 11 Adrian Tinniswood

The Age of Genius: The Seventeenth Century & the Birth of the Modern Mind A C Grayling 13 Caroline Moorehead

Spain in our Hearts: Americans in the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939 Adam Hochschild • The Last Days of the Spanish Republic Paul Preston 14 William Doyle

Liberty or Death: The French Revolution Peter McPhee 16 Adam Sisman

Hugh Trevor-Roper: The Historian (ed) Blair Worden biography & journals 17 Nicholas Roe

Guilty Thing: A Life of Thomas De Quincey Frances Wilson 19 Stoddard Martin

Cursed Legacy: The Tragic Life of Klaus Mann Frederic Spotts 20 Jonathan Keates

The Black Prince of Florence: The Spectacular Life & Treacherous Times of Alessandro de’ Medici Catherine Fletcher 22 Dominic Green

Benjamin Franklin in London: The British Life of America’s Founding Father George Goodwin 23 D J Taylor

Devoid of Shyness: From the Journal, 1926–1939 Alan Pryce-Jones art & music 24 Tim Hilton

Young Mr Turner: The First Forty Years, 1775–1815 Eric Shanes 26 Benjamin Ivry

Erik Satie: A Parisian Composer & His World Caroline Potter 27 William Robinson

The Spirit of Indian Painting: Close Encounters with 101 Great Works 1100–1900 B N Goswamy