CHRISTMAS 2014

CONTENTS

Features

Every month

Find out why people in the 19th century couldn’t resist pistols at dawn, on page 52

20 Becoming Henry VIII Stephen Alford argues that Edward VI was a bloody-minded monarch made in the image of his formidable father

24 Bloody Mary’s revolution Despite her dark reputation, the Tudor queen was, says Anna Whitelock, a political pioneer cut short in her prime

32 How to build a medieval castle Read John Goodall’s nine-step guide to constructing a fortress capable of striking fear into your foes

40 The reluctant kamikaze Not all of the infamous pilots were brainwashed zealots hellbent on death and glory, says Christopher Harding

47 The female ‘kings’ of Egypt Joann Fletcher pro les three of the woman pharaohs who de ed the odds and held sway over ancient Egypt

52 The strange world of Victorian duels Margery Masterson explains why the medieval custom of duelling refused to die in the 19th century

56 America: brave new world or accident? Malcolm Gaskill explores the aspirations of the English settlers who colonised the New World

6 ANNIVERSARIES 9 HISTORY NOW 9 The latest history news

12 Backgrounder: Hong Kong 15 Past notes

16 LETTERS 19 MICHAEL WOOD’S VIEW 65 BOOKS OF THE YEAR Nineteenleadinghistoriansnomi-

nate their favourite reads of 2014, plus we select the year’s top DVDs and historical novels

75 TV & RADIO The pick of the latest history programmes

78 OUT & ABOUT 78 History explorer:

the Bronze Age 83 Ten things to do at Christmas 84 My favourite place: Cartagena de Indias in Colombia

91 MISCELLANY 91 Q&A 94 Christmas quiz 96 Christmas crossword

98 MY HISTORY HERO HuwEdwardsonDavidLloydGeorge

30 SUBSCRIBE Save 27% when you subscribe* to the digital edition

Kamikaze pilots

Firefighters battle the blaze on HMS Formidable after a kamikaze attack on 4 May 1945 that killed several crew. Nearly 4,000 kamikaze lost their lives in the final months of the Second World War

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The reluctant kamikaze

They’ve long been portrayed as brainwashed zealots lusting for destruction, death and glory. Yet , a s Christopher Harding reveals, many kamikaze stepped into the cockpit for the nal time wracked with fear, confusion and anger at their fate

T O P F O T O

BBC History Magazine

BBC History Magazine

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USPS Identification Statement BBC HISTORY (ISSN 1469-8552) (USPS 024-177) Christmas 2014 is published 13 times a year under license from BBC Worldwide by Immediate Media Company Bristol Ltd, 9th Floor, Tower House, Fairfax Street, Bristol BS1 3BN, UK. Distributed in the US by Circulation Specialists, Inc., 2 Corporate Drive, Suite 945, Shelton CT 06484-6238. Periodicals postage paid at Shelton, CT and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to BBC HISTORY, PO Box 37495, Boone, IA 50037-0495.

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56 The violent birth of English America

20 “Even at the age of 15, Edward VI made clear his voice and will”

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BBC History Magazine