The Journal of Irish Archaeology

Volume XXXI

First published in 2022

The Journal of Irish Archaeology is published by

Wordwell Ltd, Unit 9, 78 Furze Road, Sandyford Industrial Estate, Dublin 18,

on behalf of the Institute of Archaeologists of Ireland.

www.wordwellbooks.com

Copyright © The authors

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or otherwise without either the prior written consent of the publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying in Ireland issued by the Irish Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 63 Patrick Street, Dún Laoghaire, Co. Dublin.

Submissions: all correspondence should be addressed to the Editor.

Subscriptions: €20 (individual) €50 (institutional)

ISBN 978-1-913934-83-5

ISSN 0268-537X

Typeset in Ireland by Wordwell Ltd

Copy-editor:Aoife Condit de Espino

Cover design: Nick Maxwell

Printed by: W.&G. Baird

Cover image:The west entrance to the underground passage, part of Judith Carroll’s excavations of the seventeenth-century defences of Bandon.

JOURNAL OF IRISH ARCHAEOLOGY EDITORIAL BOARD 2022

Dr Katharina Becker, Department of Archaeology, University College Cork

Dr Fiona Beglane, CERIS, Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Technology, Sligo

Dr Dirk Brandherm, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen’s University Belfast

Dr Kerri Cleary, Editorial and Research Manager, Archaeological Consultancy Services Unit

Jean Farrelly,Archaeological Survey of Ireland, National Monuments Service

Dr Carleton Jones, School of Geography and Archaeology, NUI Galway

Dr Helen Lewis, School of Archaeology, University College Dublin (Editor)

Conor McDermott, School of Archaeology, University College Dublin

Dr Cormac McSparron, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoecology, Queen’s University Belfast

Conleth Manning, Independent Researcher

Nick Maxwell,Wordwell Ltd (Publisher)

Dr Michael Potterton, Department of History, NUI Maynooth

Matthew Seaver, National Museum of Ireland

Dr Alan Hawkes, Consultant Archaeologist (JIA Convenor)

Dr Elizabeth Twohig, formerly Department of Archaeology, University College Cork